Lesson 10 PRONOUNS – 3
1.Types of Pronouns – 3
2.Different Ways of Saying – 1
a) Where do you live?
b) Where are you from?
PRONOUNS – 3
1. TYPES OF PRONOUNS – 3
In the last two lessons, we learnt about 6 different types of Pronouns. We have 3 more to go, which will be covered in this lesson.
These pronouns connect a phrase/ clause to a noun or pronoun. The connected phrase/ clause gives us more information about the noun or pronoun.
The most common relative pronouns are who, whom, which, that and whose. Sometimes what, when and where can be used as relative pronouns as well.
Relative clauses are groups of words that have both, a subject and a verb, and modify (give more information about) a noun in a sentence. So, in order to add a relative clause, we should definitely add the relative pronoun.
- A park is a place where we have a picnic.
- She is the girl whose ring was lost.
- A chef is someone who cooks at a restaurant.
- Her headache must be the reason why she didn’t turn up.
- Summer is the time when we all have fun.
Note: In the above sentences, the words in blue are relative pronouns.
The underlined parts of the sentences are relative clauses, giving more information about the noun appearing just before the relative pronoun.
Below is a table displaying a list of Relative Pronouns:
|RELATIVE PRONOUN||REFERS TO…|
|WHO, WHOEVER, WHOM, WHOMEVER||PEOPLE|
|WHICH, WHICHEVER||THINGS, QUALITIES AND IDEAS|
|THAT, WHOSE||PEOPLE, THINGS, QUALITIES AND IDEAS|
1.WHO, WHOEVER, WHOM, WHOMEVER
These pronouns mainly refer to people (or pets that are called by name and considered as persons).
- The poet who wrote this song is an Indian.
- The witnesses, whom I interviewed, were annoyed with the police.
- The sound of the whistle startled our dog, who was sleeping on the mat.
- This hat belongs to whoever was in this room.
- Select one person, whomever you like, to be your project-partner.
2.THAT, WHICH, WHICHEVER
Which, whichever are always used to refer to animals or inanimate objects and places. The relative pronoun that is similar to which, but it can refer to people as well.
- Daisy loved the dog which wagged his tail on seeing her.
- I love to visit the park which is near my house.
- My husband allowed me to choose whichever house I wanted.
- You can visit on whichever day is convenient for you.
- The bus that goes to Delhi is here.
- The brown cat that chases the squirrel is on that wall.
The relative pronoun whose is always used to refer to possession, such as people, things or animals.
- John is the only one, whose car is always at the gate.
- Priya is a nurse whose uniform is always sparkling white.
- Kavitha is a cousin of Prem, whose mobile was lost yesterday.
- He is the gardener whose house is very beautiful.
We use when, whenever as relative pronouns when referring to time.
- I remember the time when John came to see me.
- He was fast asleep when the ambulance arrived.
- Henry was busy with a presentation when the auditors suddenly came.
- He expects a cup of tea whenever he comes home.
- She stays at the Hilton whenever she goes to the city.
We use where, wherever as relative pronouns when referring to a place.
- I bought this umbrella from the same shop where I got mine.
- Do you remember the restaurant where we dined out that night?
- I searched for that bag where I usually kept it.
- Her bodyguards followed her wherever she went.
- We can go wherever you wish.
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE RELATIVE PRONOUNS:
- She had to repeat ______ I said.
- We found a place ______ we could dry the towel.
- They had a car ______ ran on gas.
- I boarded the flight ______ was headed south.
- That is the man ______ was following us the other night.
- Sheetal is a singer ______ voice is loved by Indians all over the world.
- The novel, ______ it was finally published, sold a million copies.
- The person ______ interviewed me smiled at me.
- The meeting will be conducted by ______ is elected.
- The penalty is 10% of the premium amount, or Rs.1000/-, ______ is higher.
- This is the book ______ I was reading.
- You can visit your sister ______ you like.
- Last week I met a guy ______ hates music.
- Recently I met an old classmate ______ husband works in Saudi Arabia.
- We stopped at the medical store, ______ is near my studio.
- I noticed the gate ______ was painted pink.
Reflexive pronouns end with -self or -selves and appear as the object of the sentence, where the subject and object refer to the same person(s) or thing(s). The words myself, yourself, himself, herself, oneself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves are examples of reflexive pronouns.
- I made myself some pasta.
- We saw ourselves in the mirror.
- One cannot enjoy oneself if one is exhausted.
- They helped themselves to all the jewellery in the safe.
- The spy shot himself.
The words myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves can also be used as intensive pronouns. They usually appear right after the noun or pronoun they are referring to, and are used for emphasis.
- The Principal himself was late to school that day.
- I myself became tired of all the work.
- The teacher herself got confused while solving the problem.
- The boys themselves saw what was wrong.
- He repaired the vehicle himself.
REFLEXIVE VS. INTENSIVE PRONOUNS – HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE
These two types of pronouns can be differentiated from each other in the following manner:
On removing the Reflexive Pronoun, the meaning of the original sentence is changed.
She made herself a hot cup of tea.
If we remove the reflexive pronoun herself from the above sentence, we lack vital information about whom she made the hot cup of tea for. In other words, the meaning of the original sentence is changed (not completely retained).
On removing the Intensive Pronoun, the meaning of the original sentence does not change.
- She herself prepared the presentation.
- She prepared the presentation (by) herself.
In the above sentences, the intensive pronoun herself only provides additional emphasis on the subject She. So, removing this pronoun does not change the meaning of the original sentence.
IDENTIFY – THE REFLEXIVE AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS:
- Kavitha and Sunitha admired themselves.
- The actor himself wrote the play.
- The cat gives itself a bath.
- My dad read to himself.
- I was able to tie shoelaces myself, since I was 10.
- My sister herself made the delicious meal.
- Help yourself to a glass of water.
- We ourselves built the sand castle.
- My mom built the tree house by herself.
- The patient drove himself to the hospital.
- My sister poured herself some tea.
- The computer program was written by my brother himself.
- We ourselves built the baby’s crib.
- Jane cut herself with a knife.
- Peter carried out the trash by himself.
- My friends hurt themselves in the accident.
- You yourselves need to set a good example for the rest of the class.
- My sister thinks only about herself.
- Our cat licks itself clean.
- We planned and executed the entire program by ourselves.
- You yourself said that you were not comfortable.
- I baked the cake myself.
- The patient filed the complaint himself.
2.DIFFERENT WAYS OF SAYING – 1
1.WHERE DO YOU LIVE?
Normally when we meet someone new who initiates small talk, after asking us our names and what we do for a living, the next question that usually pops up is about where we live. So let’s learn different ways to ask and answer this question.
DIFFERENT WAYS OF ASKING:
- Where do you live? (most commonly used)
- Where are you put up?
- Where are you residing? (less commonly used)
- Where are you staying? (if they are in town temporarily)
DIFFERENT WAYS OF ANSWERING:
- I live at 23B, Rahim Street, T Nagar (use at with house numbers)
- I live on Rahman Street, T Nagar (use on with street names)
- I live in Chennai (use in for city or country)
- I live near Spencer Plaza (provide landmarks, train stations)
- Spencer Plaza is very close to my place
- Do you know Mary’s School on R.H. Street?
- I am staying at GreenTree Hotel (use at for building/ hotel names)
Note: Sometimes, this question is asked to check if the other person has anything in common with us.
Also remember that if we are familiar with the area where the other person lives, we should be careful NOT to say anything negative, like
- I don’t like that area. It’s so dangerous.
- That area is the worst!
- What a dirty area that is!
- The crime rate there is so high.
Eventhough these statements may be facts, they may be considered offensive or rude to the listener. Hence we should refrain from making such negative statements.
Instead, we can say something positive/ appreciative about that place
- Nice place!
- There’s a really beautiful theme park out there.
- The mall in the city center is one of the best malls I’ve visited.
Or just make general statements like
- Oh, I see.
- I’ve been there a couple of times.
- Some of my friends live in that area.
2.WHERE ARE YOU FROM?
When someone asks us this question, it means they would like to know about our native place or hometown. It could also mean the city, state or country we are from.
DIFFERENT WAYS OF ASKING:
- Where are you from? (most commonly used)
- Where do you come from?
- Which country are you from? (less commonly used)
- Where were you born and raised? (less commonly used)
- Are you from Asia? (can be used if you are in Asia)
- Are you an Indian? (can be used if you are in India)
In few countries like India, the questions mentioned in e) and f) above, are acceptable. But in countries like the US, where many residents are immigrants from other countries, they may not like us asking the question, “Are you from Asia?”, as it may be considered racial discrimination.
So, to be on the safe side, let’s stick to the more commonly asked question, “Where are you from?”, and let the other person tell us where they are from; or if you meet the person in Goa, you can ask, “Are you from Goa?”.
DIFFERENT WAYS OF ANSWERING:
- I’m Indian.
- I’m from India / I come from India.
- I hail from India.
- I’m originally from Madurai.
- My hometown is Madurai.
Note: Just as we learned earlier, we must avoid saying anything negative about others’ hometown or country.
Suganya: So, where do you live?
Mansi: Hmm, do you know the Twin Pines school?
Suganya: Sure, I do.
Mansi: Well, I live around the corner of that street. A flat in the Bay City Apartments.
Suganya: Wow! I’ve heard that entire area is lovely, with so many flowering plants and trees all around.
Mansi: Yes it is. I love it too. And how about you? Do you live somewhere closeby?
Suganya: No, I live on the other side of town, near the Anna Nagar Museum.
Mansi: Oh, I see. I’m sorry I am new to Chennai and not too familiar with that area.
Suganya: That’s OK. Let me know when you are free and I can show you around.
Mansi: That’ll be great. Thanks Suganya, I appreciate the offer.
Suganya: You are welcome, Mansi.
Drake: So, where are you from?
Manisha: I’m from India.
Drake: Oh, is it? I’ve heard a lot about India. It’s one place I’d love to visit someday.
Manisha: You are welcome, Drake. What about you? Where are you from?
Drake: I’m Irani, from the capital city, Tehran.
Manisha: I’m sorry I’m not familiar with it. Is it huge? Which language do you speak?
Drake: Yes, it’s a huge city with beautiful modern architecture. I speak Persian.
Manisha: Thank you for sharing. I’m so glad to have met you. Have a nice day.
Drake: Thanks Manisha, same here. Nice day.
— CONVERSATION PARTICIPANTS —
(Father of the Groom)
(Mr. Raj’s Wife)
(Father of the Bride)
|— At the entrance, Mr. Shekhar (father of the Bride), welcomes his guests —|
|Hello Mrs. Meena! Good to see you!|
|Hello Mr. Shekhar!
Yes, it’s good to see you after a long time.
|Thanks for coming.|
|Where are the Newlyweds?|
|There! In the hall!|
|Oh good. They look lovely!|
|— Mrs. Meena meets a friend Mr. Prem —|
|Hello Meena, long time no see!
How are you and your husband Mr.Madhan?
|Hi Prem! We are good. Madhan has gone out on an official trip.
How are your wife and kids? Are they here?
|They’re doing great but couldn’t come as they are in Madurai,
attending a cousin’s wedding.
|Oh, is it? I think it’s the wedding season.
Even my mom is attending a wedding today.
|— Mrs. Meena meets another friend Mr. Raj —|
|Hello Meena! How are you doing?
Where are Mr. Madhan and the kids?
|I am doing well. Madhan is out of town.
And the kids have exams, so they are at home.
|How is your elder daughter? Sheetal, right?|
|Yes. She is good.
Your memory is excellent!
|Thanks. Has she completed her schooling?|
|Yes. Now she is doing her first year in college.
She’s into Fashion Designing.
|That’s a good choice.
Glad you didn’t force her into Engineering or Medicine.
|Well, I’ve always wanted the kids to pursue their own goals.
Hey Raj! isn’t that Priya?
|Yes. That’s my wife, Priya.
Hey Priya, come over! Look who’s here!
|— Mr. Raj leaves his wife, Mrs. Priya, with Mrs. Meena. They continue… —|
|Hello! Very nice to meet you!|
|Hi.. Thank you. Do you remember me?|
|Yes, I do. You are one of Raj’s friends.
But I am really sorry I don’t remember your name.
|No worries. It’s Meena Madhusudan.
We met only once at your wedding reception, years ago.
|Oh! That was more than four years ago!|
|I know. But you look quite the same.
By the way, Priya, your saree is really beautiful.
I also love your earrings. I have a pair, exactly like these.
|Thanks. My mother gifted them to me.|
|— Mr. Prem Interrupts… —|
|Excuse me, Priya! Let me introduce Meena to the groom’s father.
There he is!
|Sure. Please do. See you around, Meena.|
|Sure. And please come home one day.|
|Thank you. We will. I’ll inform Raj about your invitation.|
|Good. See you later.|
|Sure. Bye for now|
|— Mr. Prem introduces Mrs. Meena to Mr. Deepak (the Groom’s father) —|
|Hello Mr. Deepak! This is Mrs. Meena, a friend of Mr. Shekhar’s.|
|Hello Mr. Deepak!
Congratulations on your son’s wedding.
|Hello Mrs. Meena! Glad to meet you. Thank you.
Have you met the Newlyweds?
|Please come along. I will introduce you to them.|
|Great! Thank you.|
|— Mr. Deepak introduces Mrs. Meena to the Bride and Groom —|
|Son, this is Mrs. Meena, Mr. Shekhar’s colleague.|
|Hello Aunty. Thank you for coming. Please bless us.|
|Hello Raghav. I’m really happy for both of you. Your wife is so beautiful.
May God bless you both with His choicest blessings. Congratulations!
|Thank you for your blessings, Aunty.|
|It’s my pleasure. Wish you happiness always.|
|Thank you for blessing the kids.
Please come along. I’ll take you to the dining hall.
|It’s been a pleasure meeting you today.
And an honor to bless the kids.
|— Mr. Deepak leads Mrs. Meena to the Dining Hall —|
|Dinner is being served. Please feel free to help yourself.|
|Thank you very much for your kindness.|
FILL IN – WITH APPROPRIATE PRONOUNS:
- They were talking to ______ over the phone.
- ______ smartphones, over there, are very expensive.
- Can you tell ______ what happened? We’d really like to help.
- She cooked ______ a meal.
- In the end, I didn’t feel like buying
- They always protect
- I saw ______ people but did not know ______ personally.
- Do you like ______ colour or ______ one?
- Can ______ help ______ draw ______?
- ______ want to show ______ the store ______ I was cheated.
COMPLETE – USING RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND THE WORDS IN BRACKETS:
- Can you please explain ______________________________________? (Saturday)
- Do you know ______________________________________________? (handbag)
- Call me _______________________________________________________ (free)
- Tell me _______________________________________________________ (hurt)
- I was shopping in the mall ______________________________________ (house)
- The dog _______________________________________________________ (sick)
BUILDING A CONVERSATION
Imagine you are at a wedding reception – it could be an Indian or a Western wedding. You have just met an old friend at this party after many years.
Try to build a conversation with your friend about what you both have been doing since you last met, as well as about the wedding arrangements, the couple, the food etc.
TOPICS TO DISCUSS
- My friend’s wedding reception
- Different kinds of weddings you have been to
- Things one needs, to plan for a wedding