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Lesson 9 PRONOUNS – 2
1.Types of Pronouns – 2
PRONOUNS – 2
1. TYPES OF PRONOUNS – 2
Indefinite pronouns, as the name indicates, are NOT DEFINITE, i.e., they are used to speak generally about someone or something, rather than mentioning a specific person, place or thing. They can substitute a single person, place or thing, or a group of people, places or things. Also, the gender and count are unclear.
A list of some indefinite pronouns is given below:
- Everybody left the room.
- There is nobody in the classroom.
- Everyone has paid.
- We are planning to go somewhere special.
- Something is better than nothing.
- No one is above the law.
In addition to the above-mentioned pronouns, we also have a few others like all, many, few, most, each, several, some, much, little, less etc.
- All are welcome.
- Many got hurt.
- Few are chosen.
- Most have passed.
- Each is busy with his own project.
- Several have survived.
- Some are unhappy.
- Think much, speak little, and write less.
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS:
- She has _______ to say.
- I have found _______ to dance with.
- _______ are liars. I trust _______.
- _______ went to the party yesterday.
- She lives _______ in this city.
- There were many photos in the album; _______ looked new.
- I searched _______ for my keys; have you seen them _______?
- _______ you go, I will follow.
- I bought several gifts; _______ were cheap but _______ were expensive.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS OR INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES
Many of the Indefinite Pronouns we learned are often confused with Indefinite Adjectives. An adjective is a word that describes a noun. So, if the above-mentioned words come along with a noun, then they are Indefinite Adjectives.
All are welcome.
This sentence does not have a noun, and the word All is a pronoun used to refer to the entire group (of people) who are welcome. So, it is an Indefinite Pronoun.
All students are welcome.
Here, the word students is a noun, and All describes how many students are welcome. So, in this example, All is an Indefinite Adjective, not a pronoun.
Let’s look at one more example.
Some are unhappy.
This sentence does not have a noun, and the word Some is a pronoun used to describe a part of the group (of people) who are unhappy. So, it is an Indefinite Pronoun.
Some employees are unhappy.
Here, the word employees is a noun, and Some (indefinitely) describes how many employees are unhappy. So, in this example, Some is an Indefinite Adjective, not a Pronoun.
In other words, if these words are by themselves, they are Indefinite Pronouns, but if they appear along with a noun, they are Indefinite Adjectives.
STORIES FROM THE INTERNET
There are two stories on the internet, which have been used for many years in corporates during training, to explain the concept of Teamwork. Consider the following sentence:
NOBODY LISTENS, THEN EVERYBODY DISAGREES.
We all know that this is a common scenario during many meetings, where nobody pays attention and finally, everybody finds some reason to disagree. Now let’s imagine if NOBODY and EVERYBODY are the names of two people – Try reading the above sentence again. Does its meaning change now?
Likewise, someone has cleverly written stories about 4 people named EVERYBODY, SOMEBODY, ANYBODY and NOBODY. Although it can get confusing, read each story slowly, and see if you can understand their literal and figurative meanings.
STORY 1 – WHO’S JOB IS IT?
There was an important job to be done and EVERYBODY was sure that SOMEBODY would do it.
ANYBODY could have done it, but NOBODY did it.
SOMEBODY got angry about that because it was EVERYBODY‘s job.
EVERYBODY thought that ANYBODY could do it, but NOBODY realized that EVERYBODY wouldn’t do it.
It ended up such that EVERYBODY blamed SOMEBODY when NOBODY did what ANYBODY could have done.
STORY 2 – WHO WANTS CHANGE?
Once, these four friends wanted change. So, EVERYBODY said, “I want change”.
SOMEBODY said, “If only ANYBODY would start to change, I will join”.
But NOBODY said, “I will change”.
Finally, EVERYBODY stayed the same, blaming SOMEBODY for waiting for ANYBODY to start changing. So, NOBODY changed.
Possessive pronouns indicate possession or belonging. There are two kinds of possessive pronouns in English grammar.
1. Strong Possessive Pronouns like mine, yours, ours, which replace a noun or a noun phrase in order to avoid repeating information that is already clear.
- That car is mine.
- This book is not (your book) yours.
- These gardens are (their gardens) theirs.
2.Weak Possessive Pronouns (also called Possessive Adjectives) like my, your, his, which come before a noun.
- That is my
- These are his friends from India.
- Her sister and your neighbour are classmates.
Below is a list of Possessive Pronouns:
|SINGULAR/ PLURAL||PERSON||SUBJECT PRONOUN||POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS|
CHOOSE – SUITABLE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS:
- _______ (My / Mine) shirt is green.
- That book is _______ (you / yours).
- _______ (Ours / Our) birds are very noisy.
- James, would you please bring _______ (her / hers) bag.
- _______ (Your / Yours) house is very beautiful.
- Is this _______ (their / theirs) car?
- Is this car _______ (their / theirs)?
- _______ (Hers / Your) friend works with _______ (their / mine) friend’s mom.
- You love _______ (yours / your) bike, she loves _______ (her / mine).
- The laptop is _______ (theirs / my) but the desktop is _______ (his / her).
CORRECT – REPLACE REPETITIONS USING SUITABLE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS:
- That smartphone is my smartphone.
- Jack identified Jack’s friend’s house.
- Shall we go to my house or your house?
- My sister lost a gold ring; it was my sister’s.
- The school bus which broke down was our school bus.
- There were two bags – one was my bag and the other was their bag.
- The cheese sandwich is his sandwich and the pizza is our pizza.
- Is this project our project or her project?
- This can’t be Susan’s signature; Susan’s signature is quite different.
- I bought this house for my parents. It is my parents’ house.
Reciprocal pronouns are required when each of two or more subjects is acting in the same way towards the other. In other words, Reciprocal pronouns are used in scenarios when the actions performed by the subject(s) and object(s) are reciprocated.
Laura buys a gift for Jason, and Jason buys a gift for Laura.
Here, we see the following:
- There are at least two people involved – Laura and Jason
- Both, Laura and Jason are performing the same action towards each other
The above example can be re-written using a Reciprocal Pronoun as in
Laura and Jason buy gifts for each other.
There are only two reciprocal pronouns – each other and one another, which are sometimes used interchangeably.
We often use Each other when there are only two subjects involved.
- Priya and Tina shouted at each other.
- The twins helped each other.
When 3 or more subjects are involved, we often use One another.
- The senior managers spoke to one another after the annual conference.
- The students stayed at one another’s
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE PRONOUNS:
- Kavitha and Sunitha admire _______.
- They teased _______.
- Ellen and I tried to solve _______ problems.
- My friends are selfish and don’t help _______.
- Both my cousins help _______ in times of need.
- The thieves fought _______.
- The two students were calling out to _______ for help.
- We throw surprise birthday parties for _______.
An Invitation/ Invite is a written or verbal request to attend an event like a party, meal or meeting, or to do something together, like shopping, sight-seeing or visiting someone. Let’s see a few ways of inviting people.
MAKING AN INVITATION
- Would you like to come for a movie?
- Would you be interested in joining us for dinner?
- Do you want to go to the dance tonight?
- Do you want to watch a movie with us this weekend?
- Why don’t you join us for the get-together?
- Why don’t we go to the mall this Saturday?
- Let’s go to the beach.
- Let’s visit John tomorrow.
- How about a friendly game of tennis?
- How about joining us for ice-cream?
- Shall we go out for pizza?
- There’s a really nice place just a few minutes from here.
- They sell the tastiest biryani.
- Would youlike to come?
- Please join us for lunch.
- Please come home one day/ tomorrow/ any time.
- Please have some coffee.
- Will you please come over here?
- Will you join me in the dance/ Will you dance with me?
- Will you spend the weekend with us?
- I was wondering if you wanted to go for a movie with us tonight.
- I was wondering if you’d like to come home for lunch tomorrow.
And many more…….
ACCEPTING AN INVITATION
- Thanks for inviting me. I really appreciate it.
- That’s very kind of you. Thanks.
- Thanks, I’d like that very much.
- Certainly, I’d love to.
- That’s a great idea. I’ll surely join you.
- That would be great!
- I’ll be glad to.
- I’ll be happy/ delighted to come.
- Sure, I’d love to.
- Sounds good.
- Sounds like fun.
- That sounds great.
And many more…….
REFUSING AN INVITATION
- But, I’m sorry. I can’t accept your invitation.
- Thanks, but I need to be somewhere else…
- I’m afraid I won’t be able to come.
- I can’t. I’m sorry.
- I really don’t think I can. Sorry.
- I’d love to, but I have an appointment tomorrow
- Sorry, I can’t. I have guests at home.
- I don’t dance.
- I won’t be home till Sunday. But thanks for inviting me.
- I wish I could, but maybe another time?
- I’m busy tonight. How about Sunday?
- I’m sorry, I have other plans. Can I take a rain check?
And many more…….
Note: Take a rain check is an expression to indicate we are refusing the present offer or invitation but hoping that it can be postponed to a later date.
For example, if Ann invites Rick for dinner, he can use the above phrase in a few different ways as explained below:
Ann: Hey Rick! Would you like to go out for dinner tonight? My treat.
Rick 1: I’d love to, but I’m visiting my parents tonight. Can I take a rain check?
Rick 2: Thanks, but I think I’ll take a rain check. I’m visiting my parents tonight.
Rick 3: Thanks, but I’m gonna have to take a rain check on that.
Rick 4: Sorry, I can’t. But I’d love to take a rain check.
Rick 5: Sorry. Busy. Rain check?
Sharmila: Hello, Mansi! How are you?
Mansi: Hi, Sharmi. I’m good. How about you?
Sharmila: Couldn’t be better. Hey, I am having a party this Saturday and would love for you to come.
Mansi: Oh! Thanks for inviting me. I’ll be there for sure.
Mansi: Where are you planning the party?
Sharmila: At my apartment. Come home around 7pm.
Mansi: That sounds like fun. Do you want me to bring anything?
Sharmila: I am making some Biryani. It’ll be great if you could bring something to drink.
Mansi: How many are you expecting? Any dress codes?
Sharmila: I’ve invited around 10 including you. And it’s just a casual get-together.
Mansi: Okay great! I’ll see you on Saturday!
Sharmila: Lovely. Thanks. See you soon. Bye.
Susan: Hi Josh! It’s been a long time! How have you been?
Josh: I’m doing great. How about you?
Susan: I’m good too. I’m planning to go for a movie and then dinner with some friends this Friday and was wondering if you’d like to come.
Josh: Thanks Susan, I’d love to, but I’m sorry I can’t. I’m travelling to my hometown for a family get-together this weekend.
Susan: That’s too bad. I really wanted you to come, but I understand.
Josh: May be next time?
Susan: Yeah, sure. I’ll let you know.
Josh: Thanks! I appreciate it.
Susan: See you later then.
Josh: Sure. Bye for now.
FILL IN – WITH APPROPRIATE PRONOUNS:
- They were talking to _______ over the phone. And I couldn’t hear _______ of it.
- Helping _______ will surely help in the development of society.
- Sam and Aaron killed _______ in jail. They hated _______ all their lives.
- That is not my pen. It is _______. But where is _______ book?
- Take _______ with you when you go to meet your grandma.
- Give _______ a cup of coffee.
- They both have been fighting with _______.
- There is _______ in this bag, but there is _______ in this pouch – I can feel it.
- I’m hungry. Do you have _______ to eat?
- This car is _______.
- Lisa is thinking about _______.
- Isn’t that house _______?
- Somehow _______ escaped. _______ saw us.
- I have found _______ to dance with.
- _______ went to the party yesterday.
- Can _______ tell me what’s going on?
- Both team captains saluted _______.
- I receive _______ emails every day; _______ are spam.
TRY – MAKING, ACCEPTING AND REJECTING INVITATIONS:
- for a walk
- to play cards with you
- to have a cup of coffee
- to have dinner with your family
- to go for a movie with you and your friends
Also practise ACCEPTING and REJECTING such invitations using different phrases.
IDENTIFY – WHETHER THE INVITATION IS ACCEPTED OR REFUSED:
Liz has invited a few of her friends for dinner at her place. Their responses are listed below. Try to identify whether her invitation is being Accepted or Refused by them.
- What time?
- I’m afraid…
- I look forward to it…
- Sounds good…
- I’ll have to take a rain check…
- I’d love to, but…
- Where shall we meet?
- I am not crazy about…
- Let me know the details…
- Maybe some other time…
- Shall I bring dessert?
BUILDING A CONVERSATION
Imagine you are at a party – it’s your friend who is throwing the party. A few of your friends are also here.
Try to introduce yourself to new people you meet here, and also enquire about them.
TOPICS TO DISCUSS
- My birthday
- Different kinds of parties or celebrations you have been to
- Any dream party you would like to host