Lesson 8 PRONOUNS – 1
1.Types of Pronouns – 1
2.Expressing Agreement/ Disagreement
PRONOUNS – 1
1. TYPES OF PRONOUNS – 1
WHAT IS A PRONOUN?
Pronouns are the part of speech which function as a replacement for nouns. They can do everything that nouns can, and are one of the building blocks of a sentence. Some pronouns are: I, we, he, she, mine, his, this, that, we, they, theirs and ours.
- Tina is a good girl. She helps her mom. (The Noun Tina is replaced by Pronoun She)
- This book is mine.
- Weare number one.
WHY DO WE USE PRONOUNS?
- Without pronouns, we would have to repeat the noun over and over, which sounds awkward.
- Using pronouns make it less cumbersome to talk and comprehend.
- Using pronouns makes it more interesting to listen.
Raju is a smart kid. Raju likes Maths and so Raju loves going to school.
Raju is a smart kid. He likes Maths and so he loves going to school.
Before learning more about Pronouns, let us try and understand another important concept we often come across, in English Grammar.
FIRST PERSON/ SECOND PERSON/ THIRD PERSON
First, we need to remember that every noun (person, place or thing) in this world, can be considered either as First Person, Second Person or Third Person. It depends on the point of view of the person speaking.
Next, let us assume that the blue hexagon shown below, is our world. Mind you, this is only an assumption! Follow the narration and examples on the right side of each picture, and try to understand the pronouns marked in blue.
SINGULAR (ONE Person/ Animal/ Thing)
If I am the only person in the world, I will speak only ABOUT MYSELF, and use words like
I/ ME/ MY/ MINE/ MYSELF etc.
Ø I am a handsome man.
Ø I love myself.
Ø My suit is new and it is mine.
When the First Person speaks TO the Second Person, he uses words like
YOU/ YOUR/ YOURS/ YOURSELF etc.
Ø You are on time today.
Ø Is this report yours?
Ø Don’t blame yourself.
THIRD PERSON – MALE
When the First Person speaks TO the Second Person ABOUT the Third Person (Male), he uses words like HE/ HIM/ HIS/ HIMSELF etc.
Ø He is my student.
Ø His attitude must change.
Ø He hurt himself.
THIRD PERSON – FEMALE
When the First Person speaks TO the Second Person ABOUT the Third Person (Female), he uses words like SHE/ HER/ HERS/ HERSELF etc.
Ø She is lazy.
Ø Tomorrow is her birthday.
Ø She laughs at herself.
THIRD PERSON – ANIMAL/ BIRD/ THING
When the First Person speaks TO the Second Person ABOUT the Third Person (Animal/ Bird/ Thing), he uses words like IT/ ITS/ ITSELF etc.
Ø It is a cat. It licks itself clean.
Ø It is a pencil. Its tip is sharp.
Ø It is a small bird. It loves to fly.
PLURAL (GROUP of People/ Animals/ Things)
If We speak ABOUT our own Team/ Group, we use words like
WE/ US/ OUR/ OURS/ OURSELVES etc.
Ø We are Software professionals.
Ø Tomorrow is our project deadline.
Ø For any assistance, please contact us.
When the First Person speaks TO a Group of people, he uses words like
YOU/ YOUR/ YOURS/ YOURSELVES etc.
Ø Your team is performing well.
Ø You need to find a better solution.
Ø I expect you to do it yourselves.
When the First Person speaks TO the Second Person ABOUT a Group of People/ Animals/ Things, he uses words like
THEY/ THEM/ THEIR/ THEMSELVES etc.
Ø They are here to attend the interview.
Ø They are delicate. Handle them with care.
Ø Their young cannot protect themselves.
|SINGULAR||1ST Person||I||ME, MY, MINE, MYSELF|
|2nd Person||YOU||YOUR, YOURS, YOURSELF|
|3rd Person||HE||HIM, HIS, HIMSELF|
|SHE||HER, HERS, HERSELF|
|PLURAL||1ST Person||WE||US, OUR, OURS, OURSELVES|
|2nd Person||YOU||YOUR, YOURS, YOURSELVES|
|3rd Person||THEY||THEM, THEIR, THEIRS, THEMSELVES|
Note: Most of the Pronouns related to 2nd Person Singular and Plural are identical. Depending on the context, we should try and understand whether the Pronoun refers to a single person or a group.
- The teacher told John, “You have a test tomorrow.”
It is clear in the above sentence that the teacher uses the pronoun You to refer only to John. So, the 2nd Person Singular pronoun is used here.
2. The teacher told her students, “You have a test tomorrow.”
In the above example, the teacher is talking to her class and the pronoun You refers to all her students. In this case, the 2nd Person Plural pronoun is used.
TYPES OF PRONOUNS:
There are several different kinds of pronouns, including:
- Personal Pronouns (e.g., we, she)
- Demonstrative Pronouns (e.g., this, those)
- Interrogative Pronouns (e.g., whose, who)
- Indefinite Pronouns (e.g., many, several)
- Possessive Pronouns (e.g., her, mine)
- Reciprocal Pronouns (e.g., each other, one another)
- Relative Pronouns (e.g., that, where)
- Reflexive Pronouns (e.g., itself, himself)
- Intensive Pronouns (e.g., itself, himself)
In today’s lesson, we will be looking at the first three types of pronouns in detail.
Personal pronouns are associated with, and replace nouns in the sentence. They fall under two categories:
When the Personal pronoun takes the place of the noun as the SUBJECT in a sentence, it is called a Subject Pronoun. The subject pronouns in English are I, you, he, she, it, we and they.
- You are wonderful.
- I love cakes.
- He buys books.
When the personal pronoun takes the place of the noun as the OBJECT in a sentence, it is called an Object Pronoun. The object pronouns in English are me, you, him, her, it, us and them.
- Tell her to meet me.
- Talk to them.
- The teacher congratulated him.
Some sentences have both, SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS.
- They won’t come with us.
- It belongs to him.
- She likes me and you.
Below is a table summarizing the Subject and Object pronouns:
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE PERSONAL PRONOUNS:
- Priya took ______ (she / her) brother to school.
- Give ______ (I / me) the flowers.
- (She / Her) ______ went to the party yesterday.
- I am not in charge of ______ (they / them).
- I saw ______ (him / he) at the airport.
- ______ (He / Him) studied hard, but still failed.
- I will drive ______ (you / he) home.
- My dad will come to take ______ (she / her) home.
- Can ______ (me / we) meet the Professor?
- He told ______ (they / us) to wait for ______ (her / we).
- ______ (She / It) is a beautiful flower. ______ (She / It) should be watered daily.
- Can ______ (they / them) talk to ______ (they / them) tomorrow?
- ______ (You / I) can meet ______ (you / we) tomorrow.
- ______ (She / They) definitely has a doctor’s appointment next week.
- Shall ______ (you / I) go with ______ (you / me)?
A pronoun that points to a noun in a sentence is called a Demonstrative pronoun. Demonstrative pronouns may be singular or plural. They could also indicate items in space or time. The most commonly used Demonstrative pronouns are: this, that, these and those.
- This is a good book.
- That is my pen.
- These are my friends from India.
- Those books are on Advanced Robotics.
Sometimes, the words – such, none and neither are also considered as Demonstrative pronouns.
- Such were his horrible deeds.
- None of the girls are beautiful.
- Neither of the books were good.
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS:
- ______ (This / These) are obedient kids.
- ______ (That / Those) is my dad’s suitcase.
- Felipe chose ______ (this / those) song.
- James, would you please bring ______ (this / those) files here?
- I do not wish to hear ______ (this / such) excuses.
- ______ (Either / Neither) he nor his twin, won the race.
- ______ (All / None) of ______ (our / those) students missed the bus.
Interrogative pronouns are words like who, whom, whose, what and which, used for asking questions.
- Who, whom and whose are used to ask questions about PEOPLE
- What is used to ask questions about THINGS
- Which can be used either for PEOPLE OR THINGS
- Who brought these flowers?
- Whom shall we take with us?
- Whose pen is missing?
- What is your plan?
- Which food do you prefer?
Are all Question-words Interrogative Pronouns?
Question-words such as where, why, when and how are NOT Interrogative pronouns because they are not used to enquire about a noun.
- Where are you going? (enquiring about a place)
- Why are you leaving? (asking for a reason)
- When are you leaving? (enquiring about the time)
- How are you leaving? (asking about the way/ method/ instrument)
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS:
- _________ one of these shirts is your favorite?
- To _________ should I make the call?
- _________ shoes are sitting outside the front door?
- _________ would you like to do tomorrow?
- At _________ place should we meet to watch the game?
- To _________ were you talking?
- To _________ address should we send this parcel
- _________ is the new singer in the band?
- _________ is the title of the song you sang?
- _________ wants to go out for icecream?
- _________ assignment was turned in without a name written on it?
- _________ is your father’s name?
- _________ house is yours?
- _________ one of the cakes is eggless?
- _________ did you meet at the movies last week?
2.EXPRESSING AGREEMENT/ DISAGREEMENT
In our day-to-day conversations, or even while watching movies or listening to lectures, we may encounter situations where we choose to agree or disagree, or are sometimes asked to express what’s on our mind. In this lesson, we’ll be learning some commonly used Agree – Synonyms and Phrases.
It is important to understand the meaning of each word/ phrase and based on the situation you could use the appropriate one. Practice these words and give them a try in your spoken English.
AGREE – SYNONYMS
And many more…….
- My boss did not accede to my request for leave.
- I accept the terms and conditions of the contract.
- I admit that I made a mistake.
- I do not allow anyone to touch my mobile phone.
- My parents do not approve of my plans to become a chef.
- My dad will never assent to such a request.
- I concede that I am not perfect.
- I fully concur with Susan in this matter.
- After multiple requests, she finally consented to marrying me.
AGREEMENT – PHRASES
1.Absolutely/ Definitely/ Exactly….
- Absolutely! I think Lisa is the best fit for the job.
- Definitely! We can go there tomorrow.
- Exactly! It was the little boy who pulled the trigger.
2.I agree with you 100 percent
- I agree with your decision 100 percent.
- In this particular matter, I agree with you completely.
3.I approve of it
- I approve of your plan, but you must be careful.
- I approve of your efforts to be successful, but do it the honest way.
4.I believe that’s the right thing to do
- If John wants us to go with him, I believe that’s the right thing to do.
- It may be dangerous but I believe that’s the right thing to do.
5.I feel the same
- I feel the same way about our new teacher.
- I too feel the same about him.
6.I have no objection
- I have no objection to your friend’s visit.
- If you want to hang around with us, I have no objection.
7.I have the same opinion/ I am of the same opinion
- I have the same opinion that the movie is not suitable for kids.
- I am of the same opinion as my colleagues, that we need more time.
8.I share your view/ I share your opinion
- I share your view that man’s greed is never satisfied.
- I share your opinion that we need to prioritize and fix our client’s issues.
9.That’s exactly what i think
- Hey! Did you just say that Mike is unreliable? That’s exactly what I also think.
- Your dad is absolutely right – That’s exactly what I think too.
10.That’s for sure/ That’s so true
- Being a mom is not easy, that’s for sure.
- She deserves a promotion, that’s for sure.
- ‘These days, most job interviews are conducted in English’. ‘That’s so true!’
- ‘Honest people are hard to find’. ‘That’s so true!’
11.There’s no doubt about it
- The internet is so addictive, there’s no doubt about it.
- That arrogance will surely land him in trouble, there’s no doubt about it.
12.Yes, of course!
- Yes of course! You can invite him over.
- Yes of course! I will send a cab to the airport, to pick you up.
And many more…….
DISAGREEMENT – PHRASES
1.I don’t agree
- I’m sorry, I don’t agree with you on this.
- I don’t agree; I think the movie was wonderful.
2.I totally disagree
- I just want you to know that I totally disagree with this plan.
- I totally disagree with the board’s decision to suspend John.
3.I beg to differ
- Respectfully, I beg to differ!
- You may think that India is a poor country, but I beg to differ.
4.I disapprove of it
- I disapprove of this suggestion – it is just too risky.
- I disapprove of many things people do, but I don’t need to follow their example.
5.I don’t feel the same
- You may trust him completely; unfortunately I don’t feel the same.
- My parents think he is a saint, but I certainly don’t feel the same.
6.I don’t think so
- You’re saying I’m unreliable? Well, I don’t think so.
- You want me to lie to the entire team? No, I don’t think so.
7.I doubt that
- I doubt that he completed his MBA.
- I doubt that he will agree.
8.I have a different view/ opinion
- I understand what you are trying to say, but I have a different view on this topic.
- Unlike married people, I have a different view of life.
- I have a different opinion on this subject.
- Regarding long term investments, I have a different opinion.
9.I’d say the exact opposite
- I know you think he’s compassionate, but I’d say the exact opposite.
- Regarding her ability to lead, I’d say the exact opposite.
10.No, I am not sure about that
- No, I’m just not sure that this idea will work.
- No, I’m not sure about taking the exam this week.
- ‘Educated people are wise’. ‘Not necessarily!’
- Expensive smartphones are not necessarily better than cheaper ones.
12.That’s not true/ always true
- You’re saying that Rita cheated me, but that’s not true.
- That is simply not true. How could you say something like that?
- ‘Visiting a dentist is horrible.’ ‘That’s not always true.’
- Everyone thinks she is bold and cold but that’s not always true.
And many more…….
Surya: Are you going to wear this to the party?
Mansi: Yes, of course. These jeans are really nice.
Surya: No, I disagree. Look – they’re faded.
Mansi: Oh! OK.. How about me wearing a saree?
Surya: I feel the same. You will look stunning in a saree.
Mom: I disagree. I don’t like you taking him to your mom’s place.
Dad: But I didn’t mind when you took him to your mother’s place, last vacation.
Mom: Yes, of course. He was there because he had a music crash course.
Dad: So this year, let him take up a crash course on vocal training, for a month, at my mom’s place.
Mom: Sorry. I beg to differ. This isn’t worthwhile. He is not going to be in a choir.
Dad: No. He has to do it, so he can sing in my mother’s church for the annual ceremony.
Mom: I don’t think so. That is not going to happen.
FIND – OPPOSITES/ ANTONYMS:
|a) Accept – _________||b) Admit – _________|
|c) Agree – _________||d) Allow – _________|
|e) Approve – _________||f) Assent – _________|
|g) Consent – _________|
FILL IN – WITH APPROPRIATE PRONOUNS:
- She was running late this morning and forgot _______ homework.
- _______ bought our mother a watch for her birthday.
- For _______ did you buy this smartphone?
- He helped me run the show. I owe _______ big time!
- The football team won. _______ will receive a huge cash prize.
- At _______ house is the party tonight?
- For _______ purpose did you go there?
- _______ plant is mine. I watched _______ grow everyday.
- _______ books are these?
- I love _______ spectacles over there.
- With _______ did you visit your hometown?
- I love _______ dress you are wearing. How much did _______ cost?
BUILDING A CONVERSATION
Imagine you see two players arguing over a goal.
Build a conversation using the agreement/ disagreement phrases we learnt.
TOPICS TO DISCUSS
- My favorite sport
- Different kinds of sports you know
- Some peculiar games or sports that you have heard of