Lesson 7 NOUNS – 2
1. COLLECTIVE NOUNS
A Collective Noun is used to refer to a group of persons, animals or things; it therefore includes more than one member.
For example, the collective noun Family stands for parents and children. A Pack contains many wolves/ dogs. A Fleet is made up of several ships.
Here are examples of some common collective nouns:
- People: Board, Choir, Class, Committee, Family, Group, Jury, Panel, Staff, Army
- Animals: Flock, Herd, Pack, Swarm
- Things: Bunch, Fleet, Pack, Set, Pair
Today, we will be looking at the most commonly used Collective Nouns related to People, Animals and Things. We will also be learning Partitives which uses phrases like, a bar of, a packet of, a piece of, a drop of etc.
Once we’ve learned the vocabulary related to collective nouns, we will try to understand how to use these collective nouns in sentences; more importantly, which verb we should use – Singular or Plural!
So let’s get started…
PEOPLE – COLLECTIVE NOUNS
|A CHOIR of Singers||A CIRCLE of Friends||A CLASS of Students/ Pupils|
|A FLOCK of Tourists||A TEAM of Doctors||A TEAM of Athletes/ Players|
|A GANG of Robbers/ Thieves/ Criminals||A STAFF of Employees/ Servants/ Teachers||
A BOARD of Directors/ Trustees
A CREW of Workmen/ Workers on a Ship or Aircraft
|An AUDIENCE/ CROWD of Spectators||
A PANEL of Interviewers/Experts/ Judges
|An ARMY/ PARADE of Soldiers||An ORCHESTRA/ BAND of Musicians||A MOB of Angry people|
We also say:
- A CROWD/ MULTITUDE/ GROUP of People
- A GROUP of Boys/ Girls
- A BUNCH of Girls/ Kids
- A CAST of Actors
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE COLLECTIVE NOUNS (PEOPLE):
- The _________ of singers sang a very beautiful song.
- The Principal appreciated the _________ of students.
- Jane enjoyed the trip with her _________ of friends.
- The _________ of judges will select a winner for today’s competition.
- The Taj Mahal was surrounded by a _________ of tourists.
- The agenda was finalised by the _________ of directors.
- When the play had ended, the entire _________ broke into loud applause.
- The bank was looted by a _________ of thieves.
- The _________ of workmen at the construction site were very busy.
- I met a _________ of doctors at a conference meeting in the hotel.
- Last night, the _________ of musicians performed flawlessly.
- A _________ of angry protestors set five buses on fire in my hometown yesterday.
ANIMALS – COLLECTIVE NOUNS
A HERD of Cows/ Buffaloes/ Cattle
|A HERD of Elephants/ Deer||A HERD of Zebras/ Donkeys|
|A FLOCK/ DROVE of Sheep||A FLOCK of Birds – Geese/ Pigeons||A FLIGHT of Birds|
|A PACK of Dogs/ Wolves||A PRIDE of Lions||A PRIDE of Peacocks|
A BROOD/ CLUTCH of Hens A CLUTCH of Chicks
|A SHOAL/ SCHOOL of Fish/ Sharks A SCHOOL of Whales||A LITTER of Kittens/ Puppies|
|A TROOP of Monkeys||
A SWARM of Bees/ Flies/ Insects/ Locusts
|An ARMY/ A SWARM of Ants|
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE COLLECTIVE NOUNS (ANIMALS):
- While driving around a village, we saw a _________ of sheep grazing in the field.
- The _________ of wolves were heard howling all night.
- Looking out to sea, we noticed a _________ of fish swimming.
- The _________ of lions walked majestically.
- Our neighbor’s cat had a _________ of cute black-and-white kittens.
- The hen sat in a corner with her newborn _________ of chicks.
- In the jungle, a _________ of monkeys surrounded us and made loud noises.
- A huge _________ of insects destroyed our crops.
- A _________ of elephants walked by, without a care in the world.
- The _________ of geese wandered in the big farm.
- Watching the _________ of whales swim by, gave me goosebumps.
- We witnessed the most beautiful sight in the zoo, when a _________ of peacocks began to dance.
THINGS – COLLECTIVE NOUNS
|A QUIVER of Arrows||An ALBUM of Photographs||A LIST of Names/ Addresses|
|A BED of Flowers (Flowers grown on a plot of land)||A BUNCH/ BOUQUET of Flowers||A BUNCH/ RING of Keys|
|A DECK/ PACK of Cards||A NEST/ CLUTCH of Eggs||A RANGE of Mountains/ Hills|
|A FLEET of Ships/ Vehicles||A FLIGHT of Stairs/ Steps||A PAIR of Shoes|
|A HEAP/ PILE of Rubbish/ Trash||A PILE of Laundry A BUNDLE of Clothes||A PILE/ STACK of Newspapers|
We also say:
- A SET of Dishes/ Tools
- A BLOCK of Flats
- A NETWORK of Roads/ Railways
- A BUNDLE of Sticks/ Papers/ Rags/ Firewood/ Joy
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE COLLECTIVE NOUNS (THINGS):
- Last Sunday, Jane washed a huge _________ of laundry.
- My brother always carries a _________ of cards in his pocket.
- My sister’s fiance gave her a _________ of red roses on Valentine’s Day.
- The police chased the robbers up four _________ of stairs.
- I have never seen a _________ of arrows, except in movies.
- My dad was late to work because he couldn’t find his _________ of keys.
- There are many neatly arranged _________ of old newspapers in our store room.
- Last week, I purchased a new _________ of running shoes.
- Most places in India are connected by a good _________ of roads and railways.
- At Vizag, a huge _________ of ships participated in the Navy Day celebrations.
- The Himalayas is one of the largest _________ of mountains in Asia.
- Most parents love to make _________ of photos of their kids.
- The carpenter never goes out without his _________ of tools.
Partitives are words like a bar of, a tin of, a piece of, a drop of etc. that we use for both, countable and uncountable nouns. They are useful because they make it possible for us to count uncountable nouns. Let us see a few examples of Partitives we use in our everyday lives.
|A BAR of Soap||A TUBE of Toothpaste||A TIN of Paint|
|A PIECE of Jewellery||A PIECE/ SHEET of Paper||A DROP of Rain|
We also say:
- A BOX of Crayons/ Markers/ Colour Pencils/ Matches
- A COLLECTION of Stamps/ Coins
- A SET of Rules
- A WEALTH of Information
- A PIECE of Advice
PARTITIVES RELATED TO FOOD
We often use Partitives like a bunch of, a glass of, a slice of, a packet of etc. to quantify most of the food we eat and drink. Let us now learn some commonly used partitives related to food.
|A BUNCH of Bananas||A BUNCH of Grapes||A BAG/ Packet of Chips|
|A BOTTLE of Milk||A CARTON of Milk||A PACKET/ LITRE of Milk|
|A PACKET/ KILO of Sugar||A POT of Tea||A PITCHER/ JAR/ JUG of Water|
|A CUP of Tea/ Coffee||A GLASS of Water||A GLASS of Milk/ Juice|
|A BOX of Chocolates/ Cereal||A BAR of Chocolate||A PIECE of Chocolate|
|A BOWL of Flour/ Rice/ Soup||A LOAF of Bread||A SLICE of Bread|
|A SLICE/ PIECE of Cake||A SLICE of Pizza (Pronounced Peetza)||A SLICE of Cheese|
|A PIECE of Cheese||A CUBE of Cheese||A SACHET/ CUBE of Sugar|
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE PARTITIVES:
- Annie bought me a _________ of chocolates but I was allowed to eat only one _________ a day.
- My grandma placed _________ of fresh bananas and grapes on the dining table.
- She ate three _________ of bread.
- Please give me a _________ of
- Where is my _________ of orange juice?
- My aunt gifted me a beautiful _________ of jewellery.
- She buys four _________ of cereals every week.
- May I have a _________ of coffee?
- I always put three _________ of sugar in my tea.
- Last night, I had two _________ of pizza and one _________ of cake.
- My little sister did not like her _________ of soup.
- We get one _________ of milk delivered to our home every day.
- Every morning and evening, my mom makes a fresh _________ of tea at home.
- While making a sandwich, I use either two _________ of cheese or two ________.
- Add three _________ of water to the soup.
- I can finish an entire _________ of chips, all by myself.
COLLECTIVE NOUNS – SINGULAR VERB OR PLURAL VERB
In order to learn whether Collective Nouns take the Singular Verb or the Plural Verb, we need to understand some basics.
You may remember studying in school that Verbs refer to the Action performed by the Subject. Let us first see some simple examples of Singular and Plural Verbs.
|SINGULAR NOUN||SINGULAR VERB||Rest of the Sentence|
|Cow||Lives||In the farm|
Note: Singular Nouns take Singular Verbs
Singular Verbs usually end in ‘s’
|PLURAL NOUN||PLURAL VERB||Rest of the Sentence|
|Cows||Live||In the farm|
Note: Plural Nouns take Plural Verbs
Now let’s learn how sentences with Collective Nouns are constructed.
For the purpose of easy understanding, let us concentrate on just three Collective Nouns – Family, Team and Herd
|SINGULAR COLLECTIVE NOUN||PLURAL COLLECTIVE NOUN|
|(One) Family||(Many) Families|
|(One) Team||(Many) Teams|
|(One) Herd||(Many) Herds|
*** SLIGHTLY COMPLICATED!! ***
Singular Collective Nouns can take Singular OR Plural Verbs
Let’s learn this in detail below:
*** VERY EASY!! ***
Plural Collective Nouns take
So we can say
All the Families Are happy.
These Teams Play football.
Those Herds Live in the nearby farm.
We know that a Collective Noun is a name given to a group of people, animals or things. For our understanding, let us assume the Collective Noun
- Family consists of few members
- Team consists of few members
- Herd (of cows/ buffaloes) consists of few animals
USING THE SINGULAR VERB
When we consider the Collective Noun as a SINGLE UNIT performing a single task or while describing common characteristics, we use the Singular Verb.
This Family Comes from India.
This Team Plays football surprisingly well.
This Herd Lives in my sister’s farm.
(Remember we learned earlier that Singular Verbs usually end with ‘s’)
USING THE PLURAL VERB
Sometimes, instead of considering the group as a Single Unit performing a Single Task, we may consider them as INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS who are different from each other or performing different tasks. In such scenarios, the Collective Noun takes a Plural Verb.
The (members of this) Family Enjoy narrating their individual accomplishments.
(Here, the members of the family are NOT considered as a single unit but as individual members who have different accomplishments. )
The (members of this) Team Have different educational qualifications.
(Here, the members of the team are considered as separate individuals having different educational backgrounds.)
The (members of this) Herd Come from different parts of the country.
(Here, the members of the herd are considered as individual animals and not as a single unit.)
Note: The above information is only a guideline to determine whether it would be more appropriate to use a Singular verb or a Plural verb with Collective Nouns. This topic is debatable because what is generally the norm in British English may not sound right to an American, and vice versa.
In order to avoid confusion, remember to use the singular verb if you are looking at the group as a single unit;
And use the plural verb or try using “members of” before the collective noun, if you want to talk about the individual members.
Also note that the collective nouns Police and People always take a Plural verb.
FILL IN – WITH THE RIGHT VERB (AND EXPLAIN THE REASON FOR YOUR CHOICE):
- The team _________ working together. (enjoy / enjoys)
- The teams _________ working together. (enjoy / enjoys)
- The team _________ working with each other. (enjoy / enjoys)
- The couple _________ (is / are)
- The couple _________ unhappy with each other. (is / are)
- The couples _________ unhappy with each other. (is / are)
- The police _________ the crime scene. (search / searches)
- The choirs _________ beautifully. (sing / sings)
- The choir _________ beautifully. (sing / sings)
- The choir _________ beautifully unless they are fighting with each other. (sing / sings)
- The flocks _________ loud noises. (make / makes)
- The flock _________ loud noises. (make / makes)
- The flock _________ loud noises when they cannot sleep. (make / makes)
- The bands _________ really well. (perform / performs)
- The band _________ really well. (perform / performs)
- The band _________ really well if they’ve done their homework. (perform / performs)
- The people _________ to have fun. (like/ likes)
Anger is one of the emotions we generally try to avoid, but sometimes, it gets to us and we need to use language to express it and let the other person know that we are angry.
So first, let’s learn a few words that mean the same thing as “Angry” or “Anger”. Next, we’ll try and understand a few Anger – Phrasal Verbs. Finally, we’ll look at some Anger – Phrases.
Below is a list of Anger – Synonyms. The words in this list are in increasing order of severity. So, if you want to say you’re ‘a little angry’, you can pick one near the top of the list and if you need to emphasize that you are ‘really very angry’, choose a word from the bottom.
In this way, based on the situation you could use the right word. Practice them and give them a try in your spoken English.
ANGER – SYNONYMS
And many more…….
- I’m so mad at you for ruining my reputation.
- John’s attitude irritates
- Philip was indignantat the tone used by his boss.
- Susan was fuming in her seat because her teacher scolded her publicly.
- Grandpa became irate when I threw his walking stick out of the window.
- My mom was furiouswhen we damaged her vehicle.
- My boss’ face turned purple with rage.
- The incensed passenger repeatedly demanded a refund.
- My girlfriend was livid that I had invited Julie to the party.
- I am extremely outragedat the injustice meted out to Joe and his family.
ANGER – PHRASAL VERBS
Here are some phrasal verbs you can also use to convey the fact that you are angry, and even mention the Cause of your anger.
- It really gets to me when anyone touches my phone without permission.
(get to someone – means to bother/ irritate someone leading to anger)
- It ticks me off everytime I hear about this.
(tick someone off – means to make someone angry)
The following phrasal verbs describe the Result of your anger.
- When I’m furious, I lash out at anyone and everyone who comes my way.
(lash out – means to attack a person either verbally or physically)
- My dad blew up when I got arrested for the third time.
(blow up – refers to a sudden loss of temper resulting in shouting/ becoming violent)
ANGER – PHRASES
1.How dare you/ he/ she…?
If you are shocked and angry about someone’s actions.
- How dare he raise his voice at me?
- How dare you make personal comments about my family?
- How dare Susan embarrass/ humiliate/ insult me in front of everyone?
What do you mean?
If you are shocked or annoyed about something that someone just told you, or if you disagree with them
- What do you mean exactly? Are you going to help us, or not?
- What do you mean? I wasn’t even around when it happened.
- What do you mean by listening in on my conversations?
3.Who is someone to do/ talk/ act…
If you want to say that someone does not have the right to do/ talk/ act…
- Who is Prem to dictate terms in my office?
- Who is she to tell me where I should sit?
- Who are they to go through my things without my permission?
4.Look what you’ve done
You can use this when you are annoyed with someone for a wrong/ careless action, and want them to see/ understand its consequence.
- Look what you’ve done – the couch is ruined!
- Look what she’s done! Ask Lisa to clean it up right away.
- Look what you’ve done – now he won’t even look at me.
5.It/ This/ That is not funny!
This is an expression to let someone know you are annoyed, and what they’re saying or doing is NOT funny.
- It’s not funny! The kid could have drowned.
- John! Stop calling me names. That is not funny!
- Don’t keep teasing him. It’s not funny!
6.All someone ever does is …..
- I don’t want to work with Sue. All she ever does is whine and complain.
- I hate babies – all they ever do is cry and wet their diapers.
- I’m never going to trust you again – all you ever do is
7.Mind your own business!/ It’s none of your business!
These expressions are rude and are used in anger, to tell someone off, especially when they ask questions, or meddle in matters that neither affects nor involves them.
- Mind your own business, and I will mind mine!
- For a change, why don’t you try minding your own business?
- Stop being nosy – it’s none of your business.
- Stay out of this, Pete. I love you, but it’s none of your business.
8.Fed up with
You can use this expression to show you are annoyed or tired with something that’s been happening for a long time and you feel frustrated/ irritated.
- I’m totally fed up with people taking advantage of me all the time.
- He got fed up with his job as it had become monotonous.
- I’m fed up with covering up for you, all the time.
9.I’ve had enough of…
You use this phrase when you’ve reached the limit of your tolerance of other’s actions, and you are not willing to put up with it any longer.
- I’ve had enough of your lies. I don’t trust you any more.
- She’s had enough of Australia; so she’s returning to India.
- I’ve had enough of your nonsense/ stupid remarks/ non-stop gossip etc.
10.I’m Furious with…
This is an expression used to indicate that you are extremely angry with someone or something.
- I’m furious with that entire family for ill-treating my little sister.
- The boss’ll be furious with us if we don’t meet the deadline this time.
- She was furious with him for dating her best friend.
This phrase has multiple meanings but you can use it when you are angry or surprised at what someone has said.
- Hold it! Did you just call me, ‘filthy’?
- Hold it! What did you just say?
- Hold it a minute! Are you saying the deal’s off?
12.Give me a break/ gimme a break
This phrase also has other meanings, but you can use it if you want to express that you are annoyed by something someone has said, and you don’t think it’s true or you think they don’t mean it.
- Give me a break! I don’t believe a word you say.
- Give me a break!You’re being very unreasonable!
- Gimme a break! What makes you think you’re better than everyone else?
- Gimme a break! I am certainly NOT RESPONSIBLE for the mess he’s in.
13.Here we go again!/ Oh no! Not again!
Although this expression also has multiple meanings, it can be used to indicate our frustration that something unpleasant is happening again.
- Here we go again – I’ve been called to the Principal’s office.
- Oh, here we go again. Why do you always blame me for your failure?
- ‘Police! Open up!’ – ‘Oh no! Not again!’
- ‘You’re grounded for a month!’ – ‘Oh no! Not again!’
Mom: What is this! Not again! I thought you were getting better!
Son: Mom, I will try to score better next time.
Mom: Next time? All you ever do is watch TV and play video games. And now you say ‘Next Time’!
Son: I would have scored better, if you had helped me, instead of going shopping with your friends.
Mom: Hold it! Now you blame ME for not scoring well?
Maid: Bobby! Not again! Oh my god! What am I going to tell your mom?
Bobby: Sorry! That was by mistake.
Maid: Look what you’ve done – you broke the vase! Now I’m in trouble!
Bobby: But I did not mean to …
Maid: Give me a break. I don’t believe a word you say. This is what you always say!
Girl1: Oh my god! Look at you!
Girl2: Why? What’s wrong?
Girl1: I can’t hold myself. I am sorry! (laughs)
Girl2: (looking in mirror) Oh my! Who did this? You? Dave could be here any minute!
Girl2: Stop that! That is not funny!
TRY PRONOUNCING – SYNONYMS OF ANGER:
Furious, steaming, fierce, wrathful, blow up, mad, inflamed, aggravate, annoy, bitter, fuming, vent, flare, irate, seething, infuriated, incensed, livid, erupt, go off, blow off steam, rail, storm, cold, embittered, enraged, hostile, icy, indignant, scold
FILL IN – WITH COLLECTIVE NOUNS:
- The dogs gathered the _________ of sheep.
- We bought our mother a _________ of colourful flowers.
- The _________ cheered the _________ of players.
- The spectators clapped for the _________ of the play
- My teacher graded a _________ of papers.
- The dolphins swam with a _________ of fish.
- My aunt gave me a _________ of crayons.
- The _________ of cows crossed the country road.
- A huge _________ of ants walked beside the logs of wood.
- The farmer kept a _________ of pigeons in the barnyard.
- My little brother got lost in the _________ of people.
- The _________ of dogs chased the kitten under a car.
- The police are looking for a _________ of dangerous criminals.
- A _________ of birds were seen on the tree branches.
- A _________ of locusts attacked a _________ of cattle.
- My friend has a wonderful _________ of old coins.
- They welcomed the Chief Guest with a _________ of flowers.
- We saw a woman carrying a _________ of clothes on her head.
- The _________ of musicians did not work for a whole month.
- The man shuffled the _________ of cards.
- Please pass me the _________ of rice.
- The Internet has a _________ of Information.
- A long _________ of winding steps led to the top of the tower.
- Can I give you a _________ of advice?
- A _________ of robbers has been looting rich families in our community.
- A _________ of lions chased a _________ of deer.
BUILDING A CONVERSATION
Imagine you see two people arguing over some wrong information. Try to talk to them and solve the problem. Try to give some reason as to why these people are fighting.
How will you talk about this to a friend you meet on the way.
TOPICS TO DISCUSS
- My favorite hobby
- Different types of hobbies that people have
- Some peculiar hobbies you have heard of