Lesson 12 ADJECTIVES
1.Adjectives and Types of Adjectives
1. ADJECTIVES AND TYPES OF ADJECTIVES
WHAT ARE ADJECTIVES?
Adjectives are words that are used to describe or in some cases modify the nouns or the pronouns. For example, blue, slow, angry, and amazing are adjectives, because they can describe nouns, like a blue dress, the slow coach, the angry lady, an amazing view.
- The bright sun is shining.
- These flowers are really beautiful.
- Pritham is wearing a large-sized t-shirt.
- This is a pleasant
- Give me some hot
FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES
Adjectives are formed when suffixes are added to Nouns, Verbs or Other Adjectives.
Examples of suffixes added to
- Nouns are -al, -ical, -ish, -less, -ly, etc.
- Verbs are -able, -ative, -ed, -ing, etc.
- Other Adjectives are -en, -er, -est, -ish,
Let’s look at some of these Adjective formations in detail:
1.Adjectives formed from NOUNS:
His new book received favorable reviews.
Her decision to step down was regrettable.
Our creams contain only natural ingredients.
English is the official language for business.
That kid is an American.
I love the Indian Flag.
|-ate||passion||passionate||She is passionate about caring for the poor.|
The king was dressed in red silken robes.
I broke a wooden chair at home.
|My sister’s baby is beautiful.
I participated in a peaceful protest.
I am responsible for my actions.
She is a sensible girl.
|Some alcoholic beverages are expensive.
She loves oomposing patriotic songs.
Train fares are more economical that flights.
She made periodical visits to her village.
|Don’t be childish.
It was a foolish mistake.
How can you be so heartless?
I’ve been jobless for a year.
|New furniture is too costly these days.
Our neighbors are friendly.
He is quarrelsome when he is drunk.
The drug had some troublesome side-effects.
|I don’t think I am envious of his success.
A mysterious illness killed all the fish.
These shoes are dirty.
It was a rainy Saturday.
2. Adjectives formed from VERBS:
|She is a naughty but loveable child.
My job is stressful but manageable.
|The seminar was informative.
My sister is too talkative.
|I have a room mate who is always frustrated.
I felt insulted at not being invited.
|My brother is always in a playful mood.
This book has a lot of useful information.
|I listened to an inspiring speech.
His comments were irritating.
|A careless driver is dangerous.
She is a helpless widow.
3. Adjectives formed from OTHER ADJECTIVES:
|SUFFIXES||OTHER ADJECTIVES||ADJECTIVE FORMATIONS||EXAMPLES|
|Don’t blacken my name by spreading rumors.
I love watching the golden sunset.
|He was bigger than I imagined.
Older people are more prone to infections.
|Mine is the brightest room in the house.
Laila is the tallest girl in the class.
|He had a round face and darkish skin.
There were whitish marks on both hands.
|We often go shopping as a threesome.
Our cafeteria serves good wholesome food.
When phrases behave like Adjectives, they are called Adjective Phrases.
- The woman in the red dress came in.
- The boy who wore a blue shirt, was crying.
- I saw a kite of many colours flying towards me.
TYPES OF ADJECTIVES:
There are several types of Adjectives. And English grammar is more confusing at times, because of the different terms used for the same type of adjectives, by different teachers. Let us see the types of Adjectives.
- Coordinate Adjectives
- Demonstrative Adjectives
- Descriptive Adjectives
- Distributive Adjectives
- Infinite Adjectives
- Interrogative Adjectives
- Possessive Adjectives
- Predicate Adjectives
- Proper Adjectives
- Quantitative Adjectives
- Sequence Adjectives
- Participial Adjectives
Let’s now understand these Adjectives one by one.
1. COORDINATE ADJECTIVES
Coordinate Adjectives are a group of adjectives that come together to talk about or describe the same noun. These group of adjectives are separated by the word and or with commas.
- Tracy picked up the pink and brown purse at the sale.
- It was a dull, gloomy
- Their life was sad, sorry and troublesome.
2. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES
Demonstrative Adjectives indicate/ point to one specific noun or pronoun in a sentence. These Adjectives are useful when two or more people or things are being referred to, and the speaker wants to clearly point out which person or thing is being referred here.
The four Demonstrative Adjectives are:
- This boy was crying and that boy was jumping over the bed.
- These are Dave’s and those are Lincy’s.
- I will take these bags and you can take those
3. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES
These descriptive adjectives are the most common of the adjectives. They are the ones that gives an attribute to the noun. The simple noun ’boy’ is made into a ‘smart boy’.
- The silly girl walked around the same house without knocking on the door.
- He is such a great
- She was hurt, when she was called a lazy
4. DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES
The Adjectives that point out to a particular noun or pronoun, in order to bring attention to it and in some cases modify it, are called the Distributive Adjectives.
- I wake up each morning with a smile on my face.
- They have documented every single detail.
- Do you have any idea how this happened?
- I don’t like either
- I ate neither
5. INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES
In contrast to the previous adjective type, these adjectives modify nouns in a non-specific manner. Some of them are
- Do you have many women working here?
- Susan has few
- She doesn’t want any
- There are several authors who have written on this subject.
- Such kindness is hard to find.
6. INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES
As the name indicates, these Adjectives are used in questions. They pose a question and they have a noun or pronoun following them.
- What colour have you chosen for the kid’s room?
- Which dress do you want to purchase?
- Whose house is that, over the mountain?
Though these look like any other question word, you cannot use the other question words, as they do not modify the noun or the pronoun following them.
7. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
These adjectives shows possession, and are also called as Possessive Determiners. They indicate ownership or even a close connection or relationship. Also these adjectives are followed by nouns.
Examples of Possessive Adjectives are
- This is my dad’s grocery shop. Is that your house?
- She can wear his raincoat and her
- Our kids are healthy; their doctor has given them a clean bill of health.
Apart from the Adjectives listed above, we have a few more Possessive Adjectives, but they are used in scenarios where the noun is removed.
- You mean, this purse? It’s mine. Can’t you find yours?
- Which car? That’s hers and this is his.
- The one with the blue gate is ours and the green one is theirs.
8. PREDICATE ADJECTIVES
These adjectives are describing words, that come along with the linking verbs, such as am, is, are, was and were, and function as a predicate of a sentence. These apply to the subject in the sentence.
- He is kind.
- They are smart.
- We were satisfied.
- She is beautiful.
9. PROPER ADJECTIVES
These adjectives are derivatives of a proper noun. They usually begin with capital letters. Usually this describes the noun’s origin, tribe, clan or country.
- She is from a Brahmin
- The Zolo tribesmen moved forward.
- Give me that Australian
10. QUANTITATIVE ADJECTIVES
Adjectives that describe the quantity of a noun is called a quantitative adjective. The words such as one, two or any number name or words that talk about the quantity of something, like whole, half, entire is a quantitative adjective.
- He has five
- There was ten crayons in that box.
- Not just one, but I will buy the whole bunch of flowers.
11. SEQUENCE ADJECTIVES
These adjectives are more or less a quantitative adjective. Though it talks about numbers, the difference comes in as the number used as an adjective, is in its ordinal form.
- This is my second
- The third participant won the contest.
- Don’t lose this. This is the fifth pair of socks, I bought.
There are other Sequence Adjectives that we use to describe the order of things without using ordinal numbers.
- We watched the next show on TV.
- We went there last
- The previous student walked out crying.
12. PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES
An adjective which is a participle, present or past, that functions as a describing word is a participial adjective. They function just like the other adjectives.
- He jumped out of the moving (moving – Present participle)
- The kid hid inside the emptied (emptied – Past participle)
13. PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES EXPRESSING FEELINGS
There are many participial adjectives that express how we feel. They may be in the present participle or past participle. Some examples are
- interested and interesting
- bored and boring
- excited and exciting, etc.
Sometimes we can get confused about which adjective to use. So, let’s learn an easy way to remember this:
- For expressing about How People or Animals FEEL – Use -ed
- For expressing about Other People or Things – Use -ing
|Ø I am interested in music.
Ø We were interested in music.
Ø They will be interested in music.
|Ø The music is interesting.
Ø She was interesting.
Ø My job will be interesting.
|Ø I am bored.
Ø My parents look bored.
Ø My cat is bored.
|Ø The movie is boring.
Ø The lecturer looks boring.
Ø Chemistry is boring.
|Ø I am excited.
Ø John seems to be excited.
Ø You look excited.
|Ø The journey was exciting.
Ø The topic sounds exciting.
Ø Traveling is exciting.
Other Adjectives in this category are:
- tired and tiring
- fascinated and fascinating
- frustrated and frustrating
- captivated and captivating, etc
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE ADJECTIVES:
- Priya is an ______ girl.
- I have ______ books in my bag.
- She gave me the ______ box of chocolates.
- Neena is a nurse. She has ______ patience.
- It is a ______ tree.
- He is ______ Ravi nor Raju.
- ______ participants were nervous.
- I lost my ______ purse.
- Joe is not ______ but ______.
- Oceans are ______.
- Knowledge is ______.
- The questions were ______.
- Babies are ______.
FILL IN – WITH PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES: (Use the Verbs in bold)
- Sitting in a classroom bores I usually get ______ within the first half hour. History class is the most ______ of them all.
- Mystery novels are ______. They fascinate In my childhood, I was ______ by Sidney Sheldon’s novels.
- The special effects in movies captivates I am ______ whenever I watch such movies. They are absolutely and truly ______.
- Receiving prank calls frustrates I get so ______ that I feel like making a police complaint. Such calls are not only a nuisance but ______ too.
- I get ______ by the constant banging of a hammer. Actually, the sounds produced by most tools irritate And drilling machines are, by far, the most ______.
ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
Though all adjectives are describing words, one cannot place them in any order they wish. There are a few guidelines one has to follow in order to place the adjectives in the right order, when the sentence has multiple adjectives.
Here are the guidelines:
- Quantity or Number – a, an, few, some, my, his, four
- Quality or Opinion – expensive, rare, beautiful, ugly
- Size – small, huge, large, tiny, short
- Shape/ Weight/ Length – triangular, circular, thin, flat, heavy
- Condition – broken, wet, hungry, difficult
- Age – old, young, modern, ancient
- Colour – blue, green, brown, blonde
- Pattern – striped, checked, spotted
- Origin – Spanish, Indian, African
- Material – golden, wooden, plastic, paper
- Qualifier/ Purpose/ Use – cooking, dancing, running, fishing
RE-ARRANGE – ACCORDING TO THE RIGHT ORDER OF ADJECTIVES:
- An old Swiss black watch.
- An exciting new heavy book.
- A white beautiful big bow.
- A brown small wooden spoon
- An new amazing Indian movie.
- A pair of leather sports black shoes.
- A pink bright party earring.
- Six heavy wooden Indian brown tables.
When somebody has lost a loved one, it can be very hard to say words of condolences. But it’s very important to say something, at that time.
By sharing your condolences, you show them that you care and you are trying to offer comfort in one of the hardest times they are going through. It’s the most loving gesture you can show, which means a lot to them.
If you are not sure how to express your condolences, just remember that your message need not be long. A short, meaningful, comforting phrase on time is soothing.
USING GENERAL PHRASES:
- I’m sorry for your loss.
- I was heartbroken by this sad news.
- May God bless and comfort you and your family during this difficult period.
- My deepest condolences.
- My heart goes out to you in your time of sorrow.
- I am here, if you want to talk.
- We will remember you in our prayers.
- May God give you the peace and strength you need at this time.
And many more…….
BY RECALLING SOME OF THEIR MEMORABLE QUALITIES:
- She was such a dedicated mother. I’m sorry for your loss. She will be remembered.
- He was so kind to me all these years. I can never forget him.
- She was always there when I needed any help with my kids. I loved her like my mother. I will surely miss her.
- I can never forget his love for the poor and needy. We will surely miss him.
- He was so energetic and cheerful during our college days. He was a star!
And many more…….
- I know how you feel. (We can never know exactly how they feel)
- Time heals all wounds. (Many people don’t want to forget their loved ones)
- You’ve still got your other kids. (The other kids cannot replace the lost child!)
- Everyone must die one day. (This is disrespectful.)
- He led a full life. (This is similar to saying – It was time for him to go!)
- You’re not the first person to lose someone. (This is absolutely rude.)
- It’s time to move on. (This is not for us to decide.)
DON’T EXPECT THE GRIEVING PERSON:
- To say – Thank you.
- To think rationally.
- To pay attention to you.
3. CONVERSATION EXAMPLE
TALKING ON THE PHONE
Kamala is Ramya’s friend. She wants to go out for a movie. She tries to reach Ramya, to see if she would accompany her to the theater. Let’s see what happens when she calls Ramya’s house.
|— CONVERSATION PARTICIPANTS —|
|— Kamala Phones
Ramya’s Residence —
|Hello, Is this 57028941?|
|Am I speaking to Ramya?|
|Sorry, No. I’m Sowmya, Ramya’s sister.|
|Oh, is it? You sound very much like your sister.
How are you doing?
|I’m doing great. Thanks.|
|I am Kamala, Ramya’s classmate.|
|Oh yes, I’ve heard so much about you.
Hope you are fine too.
|Yes, thank you. I am doing really good.
Is Ramya around? I would like to talk to her.
|I’m afraid, she is not at home. She is out shopping with mom.
But they should be back in a few minutes.
Can I take a message?
|Yes, that would be great!
Will you ask her to call me as soon as she is back?
|Sure, I will.
Does she have your number?
|Well, I am right now in my uncle’s house.
I’ll give you his number. Please note it down.
|Just a moment. (a pause to pick up pen and paper)
Yes, I’m ready. Please go ahead.
|Yes, that’s correct.|
I will definitely ask her to call you when she returns.
|Thanks a lot. It was nice talking to you.
Have a great day.
|Thanks. You too.
|— Ramya returns
and calls Kamala —
|Hello, is this 46038297.|
|Yes. Who is this?|
|I’m Ramya. I think you must Kamala’s uncle.
I am Kamala’s classmate.
I would like to speak to her.
|Sure. Hold on for a moment.|
|— Kamala picks up the Receiver –|
|Hi Kamala, what’s up?
I heard you called.
|Oh yes. Nothing much.
Just getting bored.
What about going to a movie?
|Not a bad idea.
|There is a new English movie at Rainbow theatre.
Shall we watch it?
Even I wanted to watch it – I heard it’s good.
|Perfect! Shall we go for the evening show?|
|Yes, evening show is fine.
So what about the tickets?
|Don’t worry about that – I will get the tickets for the show.
I will buy them online, right away.
|Great! Where should I meet you then?|
|In the lobby, at 6 o’clock sharp.
And, by the way, I spoke to your sister, Sowmya.
Why don’t you bring her along?
|Thanks. I will.
I’m sure she’ll be excited.
|Alright then. We’ll meet in the lobby at 6.|
|Sure. We’ll be there on time.|
See you soon.
Bye for now.
FILL IN – WITH SUITABLE ADJECTIVES:
- Sheetal wore a pair of ________ slippers to class.
- The fridge is really ________. Everything here has gone bad.
- Are you watching a ________ movie?
- This beach is really a ________ place to enjoy.
- The protestors shouted angrily at the ________ minister.
- He drank the ________ bottle of wine.
- Do you know who stole her ________ purse?
- Tim lives on the ________ floor of this building.
- Bring in the ________ boxes.
- Rajan is a surgeon. He is very ________.
- It is a ________ house.
- She is ________ Kavitha nor Kamali.
FILL IN – WITH PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES: (Use the Verbs in bold)
- Working as a doctor satisfies I’m ________ when my patients are relieved from their illnesses, and the challenges at work are really ________.
- My sister rarely surprises Last year, when she flew down from the US on my birthday, I was truly ________. It was definitely the most ________ birthday gift ever!
- Theme parks have thrilled me since childhood. The rides are exciting and ________ and I am absolutely ________ and grateful for the theme park near my home.
BUILDING A CONVERSATION
Imagine you are at a movie, having a nice time with friends. You are watching your favorite hero’s movie.
Try to give your opinion on the movie, and describe your experience.
TOPICS TO DISCUSS
- Describe a memorable time in a theatre.
- Talk about the genre of movie you like.
- Talk about your favourite actor/ actress.